Age-related cataracts and drug therapy: opportunities and challenges for local delivery of antioxidants to the lens





Hamdi Abdelkader, Ryd G. Alani, Barbara Pircionek

As previously published in: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. - 2015. - Vol. 67. - Issue 4. - P. 537-550.  

Posilannya on Povny versіyu stattі anglіyskoyu movoyu: https : // onlinelibrary wiley com doi /10.1111/ jphp .12355 / full jphp 12355- bib -0015     





Injection of anti-cataract drugs in three decades. Over the course of an hour, the deyakі methods of treatment became more and more antioxidant, as before, becoming a great interest.



Keys position

The primary function of the crystal in the opinion of people, the order of the horn, the field in the broken lights for the correct focus on the pages - this is how the optimal image quality is. On the other hand, Kryshtalik is known for morphological, biochemical and physical changes, which can be produced to the point of being cloudy. Vikova, for an old woman, cataract is one of the main reasons for the deterioration of zoru in people of the lithium age. I will look at the visibility of the access to the surgical treatment in the bagatokh parts of the svitu, cataracts become the main reason for the loss. Hirurgical involvement є In one way, cataract treatment, however, it is possible to get rid of cataract.



Kristalik homeostasis

Krystalik, from his sides, is bathed by the inner rim, which compensates for the blood loss, without having lively chaps, amino acids and antioxidants (for example, ascorbic acid) The response to the vitality and homeostasis of the crystal is to lie in the form of effective water and ionic canals (aquaporin and conexin). The cyst canals are paracellularly and transcellularly rosted in the epithelium of the crystal and the cortical ball. The largest head antioxidant, GSH (glutathione), is biosynthesized in the cortical ball of the crystal and diffuses into the nucleus. Molecular identification of antioxidant transporters is not carried out until the end of the day, as it is, for the purpose of enhancing the delivery of antioxidants to the nucleus of the crystal. However, dan, the speed of the transfer of water and water-corrosive speech through the epithelium of the crystal and the cortical ball changes rapidly. A decrease in the transport of antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, amino acids and glutathione, a precursor to cysteine, can be reduced to oxidative oxidative stress of the crystal and in the bag until viral cataract is established.



Endogenous antioxidants in crystal

Two endogenous antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) are absorbed in the anterior segment of the eye: horny, trabecular sittsi and crystal. The tissue is relieved of the blood-bearing deaths and the chill to the oxidative damage by stretching out the life. The named antioxidants are vital for the purification of any kind of life caused by reactive acidic and vital radicals. It is important to note that the concentration of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is the most common in the horny diet, while the concentration of GSH is found in the crystal.

Human organism cannot synthesize ascorbic acid through the viscosity of -gulonolactone oxidase, and it also requires exogenously inappropriate vitamin C. The last data showed that aquaporin can play a role in the transferred ascorbic acid from the internal line to the crystal.

Glutathione can be removed from the reaction, or it can also be synthesized in the body from the amino acids cysteine, glutamate and glutamate behind the addition of γ- glutamyl synthetase and GSH- synthetase. Glutathione is synthesized in metabolically active epithelial cells of the crystal, and then it is transferred to the cortical ball and nucleus of the crystal through a long distance. Of GSH - efektivnosti antioxidant yaky dіє on sulfgіdrilnі groupies (- SH ), dwellers pіdtrimuvati hіmіchnu th fіzichnu tsіlіsnіst kristalіnіv, zahischayuchi їh od posttranslyatsіynih modifіkatsіy i cob cataractogenesis.



Old age of kristalik and vikovy cataractogenesis

In addition, Kryshtalik is aware of morphological, biochemical and physical changes, as well as the reasons for the formation of viral nuclear cataract. The process of changing the life of the people is much more common, and not being surrounded by a specific anatomical dileyanka, or just pouring a crystal ball on the child.



Preventive treatment of cataract

The main goals of the pharmacological treatment are to improve the process of turbidity of the crystal, to reduce the incidence of illness and the rate of medical service. Pidrakhovano, that one type of fixation of cataract by 10 times to reduce the surgical cost and tie of vitrati by 50 %. Over the last three decades, many anti-cataract agents have been in vivo with incubated crystals; and the preparation will show good results. However, vicarious agents for cataract elimination among people have been given a sum. 

Residual and effective pharmacological treatment of cataract has not been known until an hour. The table shows the main characteristics of the therapeutic groups, such as encouraging positive / reversal of viral cataract.


Osnovnі characteristics potentsіynih agentіv for antikataraktalnoї terapії  

Pharmacological group 



Aspirin /

aspirin like drugs , for example aspirin ibuprofen and paracetamol

  • Anti-denaturation agents for acetylations of crystals of kryshtalik.
  • Weak antioxidants, reduce zucor in plasma.
  • Effectively both systemically and mistsevo
  • The main systemic side effects, for example, the creeping of the slurry and the deficiency.
  • A lot of side effects, for example, seeing pokryuvannya and teasing of horns.
  • Required for more advanced testing and clinical testing on adult models of cataract

Protein stabilizers /

zakisnі zasobi, for example, bendazak and hydroxybendazak

  • Engaging the aggregation and denaturation of the bottle, taking into account the post-translational modifications.
  • Effectively both systemically and mistsevo
  • Inadequately vivcheno dovgostrokova bezpeku for fabrics eye.
  • Nemaє klinichnykh viprobuvan on great groups

Antagonist of the factor to the growth of opioids, for example, naltrexone

  • Adopt the scholarship of the kryshtalik's drink .
  • Zahischak as a cataractogenesis, caused by dry eye syndrome.
  • By means of transferring endogenous antioxidants and precursors to the nucleus of crystal
  • The overwhelming activation of the fibers of the crystal can lead to the formation of a diffusion bar for the nucleus of the crystal.
  • Cloudedness of the crystal through the overworldly expression of carriers of ascorbic acid.
  • Nemaє doslіdzhen i klinіchnykh viprobuvan

Flavonoids, for example, quercetin, diosmin and curcumin

  • May cause antioxidant power .
  • Є ingibitors of aldose reductases
  • It is disgusting to be found at the water .
  • Chemically unstable .
  • Nemaє klinichnykh viprobuvan on great groups

N- acetylcarnosine

  • MA antioxidant antiglikatsіynі power.
  • Reverse process of cataractogenesis
  • Nemaє classy viprobuvan on great groups.
  • Single Center of Doslidzhennya


Exogenous antioxidant

Ostannіm hour Velika uwagi pridіlyayut rolі antioksidantіv in pіdtrimannі strukturnoї that hіmіchnoї tsіlіsnostі bіlkіv Krishtalik Antioxidants takozh vіdomі yak vіdnovniki , Je molecule zdatnoyu prignіchuvati okisnennya іnshih fіzіologіchno aktivnіshih molecules zavdyaki hіmіchnomu vіdnovlennyu for yakogo molecule antioxidant priymaє two abo bіlshe elektronіv od vіlnih radikalіv chi actively forms CHIN .

Antioxidants podіlyayut on Dvi osnovnі velikі groupies fallow od addition rozchinnі stench from vodі gіdrofіlnі chi nerozchinnі lіpofіlnі ). Vіdomimi vodorozchinnimi antioxidants tіolovimi antioxidants that їhnіmi hіmіchnimi pohіdnimi SSMSC bulo neschodavno vidіleno yak antikataraktalnі agents , Je GSH, tsisteїn prolіki tsisteїnu L-2-oksotіazolіdin-4-karbonovoї acid (HTA), N- acetylcarnosine , N- atsetiltsisteїn i N- acetylcysteineamide .

Kraplі -atsetilkarnozinu (1 %) gave results in obnadіylivі lіkuvannі / profіlaktitsі vіkovoї cataract Lyudin i perenosimіst show good drug to eyes to 6 months at 9 i. In the last pre-existing musculoskeletal intake of -acetylcarnosine (2 % in mature vagi up to volume), it was weakened in the opaque crystalline of immature cataracts or nuclear sclerosis in dogs, today cataract for adult lowering. N- acetylcarnosine is a chain of carnosine, which induces peroxide oxidation of lipid in membrane models. It was revealed that after 15–30 minutes of dropping N- acetylcarnosine into the eyes of the rabbit, the dose of lateral hydrolysis would be obtained when carnosine was passed through the horn and vivilnya at the anterior chamber of the eye.  



Problems of antioxidant therapy

Literature mіstit superechlivі visnovki : brought korist oral antioxidant supplements, ale trivale zastosuvannya їh daє obmezhenі Vigoda Dostatnі rіvnі antioxidant in vnutrіshnoochnіy rіdinі duzhe vazhlivі for stvorennya gradієnta kontsentratsії yaky Mauger napravlyati pozhivnі rechovini to tsіlovih dіlyanok in yadrі Krishtalik sudyachi of usogo through Sertsevy-sudinnu system tse vіdbuvaєtsya neefektivno .

Potochnі doslіdzhennya zoseredzhenі on rozroblennі advanced delivery systems antioksidantіv on perednіy segment of an eye for kraschoї ochnoї bіodostupnostі and otzhe maintained upstream is therapeutic rezultatіv through obhіd mainly anatomіchnih fіzіologіchnih bar'єrіv eye, napriklad prekornealnoї slіznoї plіvki obmezhuvalnih schіlnih kontaktіv in lіpofіlnomu epіtelії rogіvki that nososlіznogo channel.



Possibilities for the list of vikoristanoi at the statti literature https : // onlinelibrary wiley com doi /10.1111/ jphp .12355 / full references